A firewall is a system that provides network security by filtering incoming and outgoing network traffic based on a set of user-defined rules.
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A system administrator who assumes the role of the root user can permit other normal system users with the help of sudo command and a few configurations to run some commands as well as carry out a number of vital system operations including the ones mentioned above.
Alternatively, the system administrator can share the root user password (which is not a recommended method) so that normal system users have access to the root user account via su command.